On This Day In TCXPI History - A Self Reflection (2013)

On This Day In TCXPI History - 24/7/365
As I begin the last month The Chinue X Project (TCXPI) of sharing African And African American Historical Facts, I reflect on what this project has meant to me. 
First and foremost, it gave me the opportunity to research daily the contributions that Our Ancestors have made in the struggle for Liberation, Existence, Equality, and Justice. This was MY Daily Affirmation of - Where I had come from, Who I had come from, and How I would continue to Honor and Respect My African Heritage. I looked forward to rising each morning to research new and insightful facts On My People - the good, the bad, and the ugly - and sharing it with the world.
Second, seeing the responses - good, bad, ugly - inspired me to continue on. I realized early on that My People had been Mis-Educated for so long through no fault of their own. I sought to "Bring Forth" the Truth Of Our Story and to Critically Challenge that Mis-Education.
Finally, to have FB has a conduit to disseminate this knowledge, and have my FB family, friends, and others "Share and Comment" on the posts, was confirmation that I was reaching and connecting with my people. 
I have forged some wonderful friendships and collaborations during this year and I am so appreciative and grateful. 
I look forward to what 2014 will bring for The Chinue X Project (TCXPI)

Children Learn What They Live by Dorothy Law Nolte, Ph.D.

Children Learn What They Live
By Dorothy Law Nolte, Ph.D.

 If children live with criticism, they learn to condemn.

 If children live with hostility, they learn to fight.

 If children live with fear, they learn to be apprehensive.

 If children live with pity, they learn to feel sorry for themselves.

 If children live with ridicule, they learn to feel shy.

 If children live with jealousy, they learn to feel envy.

 If children live with shame, they learn to feel guilty.

 If children live with encouragement, they learn confidence.

 If children live with tolerance, they learn patience.

 If children live with praise, they learn appreciation.

 If children live with acceptance, they learn to love.

 If children live with approval, they learn to like themselves.

 If children live with recognition, they learn it is good to have a goal.

 If children live with sharing, they learn generosity.

 If children live with honesty, they learn truthfulness.

 If children live with fairness, they learn justice.

 If children live with kindness and consideration, they learn respect.

 If children live with security, they learn to have faith in themselves and in those about them.

 If children live with friendliness, they learn the world is a nice place in which to live.

Copyright � 1972 by Dorothy Law Nolte


This compilation is created as a tribute to the Africans and African Americans that have made contributions to the world despite the challenges, and obstacles that existed - the good, the bad, and the ugly. We must embrace African People, History, and Culture as our own. Through these challenges, the Ancestor displayed Self-Determination, Resilience, Courage, and Black Pride in their Quest For Equality and Social Justice.


These images give brief descriptions of just some of Our Sung and Unsung People and Events.


I Give Thanks and Honor to All who have made and who will make contributions to the building and developing of  the United States of America and the World.


Cynthia D. Cornelius,

TCXPI CEO and Founder

Hazel Doris Scott: Breaking Down Racial Barriers in Music and Film


The Chinue X Project, Inc. Celebrates The Life And Legacy Of Hazel Doris Scott, Child Musical Prodigy, and Jazz and Classical Pianist and Singer, who Broke Down Barriers in the Recording and Film Industries.
Born in Port Au Spain, Trinidad, Ms. Scott’s parents moved to the United States, where she began perfecting her “gift” as a pianist. She studied classical piano at Juilliard from the age of eight. She became an attraction at downtown and uptown branches of Cafe Society in the late '30s and early '40s. Scott had her own radio show in 1936, appeared on Broadway in 1938, and was in five films during the '40s, among them Rhapsody in Blue. She wrote such songs as "Love Comes Softly" and "Nightmare Blues.“
In 1950, she would become the First African American performer to host her own nationally syndicated television show. As the solo star of the show, Hazel performed piano and vocals, often singing tunes in one of the seven languages she spoke. A review in Variety stated, “Hazel Scott has a neat little show in this modest package. Most engaging element in the air is the Scott personality, which is dignified, yet relaxed and versatile.”
She was also the second wife of US Congressman Adam Clayton Powell Jr.
For Further Reading and Viewing:

On This Day In TCXPI History

We Remember Denise McNair (11), Carole Robertson (14), Addie Mae Collins (14), and Cynthia Wesley (14), who on Sunday morning, September 15, 1963 at 10:22 a.m. were killed by a bomb planted by Ku Klux Klan members at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, AL. This senseless, murderous, and cowardice act would shock the nation and galvanize the Civil Rights movement.
For Further Reading:

Two more African American youths were killed that day. Johnnie Robinson (16), was shot by police for throwing stones at moving cars. Virgil Ware (13), on a bicycle, was shot by a white man on a motor scooter.
For Further Reading:

The Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey, UNIA Leader and Pan Africanist Leader

Marcus Mosiah Garvey was born on this day
 in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica.

Marcus Mosiah Garvey creates "The Negro World" newspaper as the official organ of the Universal Negro Improvement (UNIA).



Fruitvale Station

Tuesday night. I was honor to  attend a pre-release viewing of "Fruitvale Station" in DC with my son, who attended St. Mary's with  film writer/producer Ryan Coogler.  An amazing movie - Ryan did an excellent job bringing Oscar Grant's story to the big screen. As a native of Oakland, it brought back heartfelt memories of his tragic death and the impact it had on the entire Oakland community. I feel that this movie will touch you in a different way if you - First, are from Oakland and you see all  the familiarity; Second, if you are Black and understand his family and cultural dynamics; Third, if you are fully aware of his tragic and senseless murder; and Fourth, if you are a Mother to a Black male in the Black community.  It was so welcoming to see what a big heart and personality he had, as well as a deep love for his family. I didn't find it "laugh out loud" funny, and kind of took offense to those that did. I teared up and cried mostly. For me it was like going to a funeral - reliving 2009 New Year's Day all over again. Oscar Grant's Life represents many of our young Black men all over the world, who desire to walk a straight path, no matter how many obstacles and challenges are presented. I hope Oscar's story will touch the lives of others who face these same struggles. Michael B, Jordan, Octavia Spencer, and the entire cast were excellent! Job well done!


On This Day In TCXPI History - Celebrating Juneteenth!

JUNETEENTH. On June 19 ("Juneteenth"), 1865, Union general Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston and issued General Order Number 3, which read in part, "The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor." The tidings of freedom reached the approximately 250,000 slaves in Texas gradually as individual plantation owners informed their bondsmen over the months following the end of the war. The news elicited an array of personal celebrations, some of which have been described in The Slave Narratives of Texas (1974). The first broader celebrations of Juneteenth were used as political rallies and to teach freed African American about their voting rights. Within a short time, however, Juneteenth was marked by festivities throughout the state, some of which were organized by official Juneteenth committees.
The day has been celebrated through formal thanksgiving ceremonies at which the hymn "Lift Every Voice" furnished the opening. In addition, public entertainment, picnics, and family reunions have often featured dramatic readings, pageants, parades, barbecues, and ball games. Blues festivals have also shaped the Juneteenth remembrance. In Limestone County, celebrants gather for a three-day reunion organized by the Nineteenth of June Organization. Some of the early emancipation festivities were relegated by city authorities to a town's outskirts; in time, however, black groups collected funds to purchase tracts of land for their celebrations, including Juneteenth. A common name for these sites was Emancipation Park. In Houston, for instance, a deed for a ten-acre site was signed in 1872, and in Austin the Travis County Emancipation Celebration Association acquired land for its Emancipation Park in the early 1900s; the Juneteenth event was later moved to Rosewood Park. In Limestone County the Nineteenth of June Association acquired thirty acres, which has since been reduced to twenty acres by the rising of Lake Mexia.
Particular celebrations of Juneteenth have had unique beginnings or aspects. In the state capital Juneteenth was first celebrated in 1867 under the direction of the Freedmen's Bureau and became part of the calendar of public events by 1872. Juneteenth in Limestone County has gathered "thousands" to be with families and friends. At one time 30,000 blacks gathered at Booker T. Washington Park, known more popularly as Comanche Crossing, for the event. One of the most important parts of the Limestone celebration is the recollection of family history, both under slavery and since. Another of the state's memorable celebrations of Juneteenth occurred in Brenham, where large, racially mixed crowds witness the annual promenade through town. In Beeville, black, white, and brown residents have also joined together to commemorate the day with barbecue, picnics, and other festivities.
Juneteenth declined in popularity in the early 1960s, when the civil-rights movement, with its push for integration, diminished interest in the event. In the 1970s African Americans' renewed interest in celebrating their cultural heritage led to the revitalization of the holiday throughout the state. At the end of the decade Representative Al Edwards, a Democrat from Houston, introduced a bill calling for Juneteenth to become a state holiday. The legislature passed the act in 1979, and Governor William P. Clements, Jr., signed it into law. The first state-sponsored Juneteenth celebration took place in 1980.
Juneteenth has also had an impact outside the state. Black Texans who moved to Louisiana and Oklahoma have taken the celebration with them. In 1991 the Anacostia Museum of the Smithsonian Institution sponsored "Juneteenth '91, Freedom Revisited," featuring public speeches, African-American arts and crafts, and other cultural programs. There, as in Texas, the state of its origin, Juneteenth has provided the public the opportunity to recall the milestone in human rights the day represents for African Americans.
Randolph B. Campbell, "The End of Slavery in Texas: A Research Note," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 88 (July 1984). Gregg Cantrell and Elizabeth Hayes Turner, eds., Lone Star Pasts: Memory and History in Texas (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2007). Doris Hollis Pemberton, Juneteenth at Comanche Crossing (Austin: Eakin Press, 1983). Vertical Files, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin. William H. Wiggins, Jr., O Freedom! Afro-American Emancipation Celebrations (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1987). David A. Williams, The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 and the Emancipation Proclamation, Texas Style (June 19, 1865) (Austin: Williams Independent Research Enterprises, 1979).

On This Day In History - Remembering The Honorable Marcus Garvey.

Marcus Garvey was born in St Ann's Bay, Jamaica on 17 August 1887, the youngest of 11 children. He inherited a keen interest in books from his father, a mason and made full use of the extensive family library. At the age of 14 he left school and became a printer's apprentice where he led a strike for higher wages. From 1910 to 1912, Garvey travelled in South and Central America and also visited London.
He returned to Jamaica in 1914 and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). In 1916, Garvey moved to Harlem in New York where UNIA thrived. By now a formidable public speaker, Garvey spoke across America. He urged African-Americans to be proud of their race and return to Africa, their ancestral homeland and attracted thousands of supporters.

To facilitate the return to Africa that he advocated, in 1919 Garvey founded the Black Star Line, to provide transportation to Africa, and the Negro Factories Corporation to encourage black economic independence. Garvey also unsuccessfully tried to persuade the government of Liberia in west Africa to grant land on which black people from America could settle.

In 1922, Garvey was arrested for mail fraud in connection with the sale of stock in the Black Star Line, which had now failed. Although there were irregularities connected to the business, the prosecution was probably politically motivated, as Garvey's activities had attracted considerable government attention. Garvey was sent to prison and later deported to Jamaica. In 1935, he moved permanently to London where he died on 10 June 1940. In 1964, his body was returned to Jamaica where he was declared the country's first national hero.



Company E, 4th USCT

How Memorial Day Was Stripped of Its African-American Roots
Excerpts Written by: Ben Becker

What we now know as Memorial Day began as “Decoration Day” in the immediate aftermath of the U.S. Civil War. It was a tradition initiated by former slaves to celebrate emancipation and commemorate those who died for that cause. The spirit of the first Decoration Day—the struggle for Black liberation and the fight against racism—has unfortunately been whitewashed from the modern Memorial Day.

These days, Memorial Day is arranged as a day “without politics”—a general patriotic celebration of all soldiers and veterans, regardless of the nature of the wars in which they participated. This is the opposite of how the day emerged, with explicitly partisan motivations, to celebrate those who fought for justice and liberation.

The concept that the population must “remember the sacrifice” of U.S. service members, without a critical reflection on the wars themselves, did not emerge by accident. It came about in the Jim Crow period as the Northern and Southern ruling classes sought to reunite the country around apolitical mourning, which required erasing the “divisive” issues of slavery and Black citizenship. These issues had been at the heart of the struggles of the Civil War and Reconstruction.

To truly honor Memorial Day means putting the politics back in. It means reviving the visions of emancipation and liberation that animated the first Decoration Days. It means celebrating those who have fought for justice, while exposing the cruel manipulation of hundreds of thousands of U.S. service members who have been sent to fight and die in wars for conquest and empire.



Too Much Schooling, Too Little Education: A Paradox Of Black Life In White Societies. Written by Mwalimu J. Shujaa

"Schooling is a process intended to perpetuate and maintain the society's existing power relations and the institutional structures that support those arrangements. All societies must provide a means for their members to learn, develop, and maintain adequate motivation throughout their life cycles for participation in socially valued and controlled patterns of action. However, what is crucial to understand for this discussion is that when multiple cultural orientations exist within a nation-state, it is the leadership among the adherents to the politically dominant cultural orientation that exercise the most influence on the 'concepts, values, and skills' that schools transmit....Education, in contrast to schooling, is our means of providing for the intergenerational transmission of values, beliefs, traditions, customs, rituals and sensibilities along with the the knowledge of why these things must be sustained. Through education we learn how to determine what is in our interests, distinguish our interests from those of others, and recognize when our interests are consistent and inconsistent with those of others. Education prepares us to accept the staff of cultural leadership from the generation that preceded ours, build upon our inheritance and make ready the generation that will follow us. Education transmits knowledge all things that give our particular cultural orientation its uniqueness. Every cultural group must provide for this transmission process or it will cease to exist."

Citation:  Shujaa, Mwalimu, J. Too much schooling, too little education: a paradox of black life in white societies. Africa World Press, 1994.


April 21, 1950 - April 6, 1968
The Day My Beloved Brother Comrade was Murdered
by Terry M. Cotton
On April 6, 1968, two days after Martin Luther King had been murdered, I got dressed and prepared to go to Central Headquarters of the Black Panther Party (BPP) along with Panthers Jimmy Charley and Terry Claridy. I read a chapter of the "Red Book - Quotations by Chairman Mao" before I left. We arrived at Central Headquarters at 45th and Grove St. to get assigned to various locations to sell the Party's newspaper "The Black Panther," collect donations and pass out leaflets in the community about the barbecue for the "Free Huey Newton" defense committee to be held at then called - Defremery Park on April 7th.  

Later that evening, around 4pm, other Panthers and I, in groups of two and three, were circulating in the community and going to high schools spreading the word that despite the murder of Dr. King, they should stay cool, lay low and refrain from all counterproductive and random violence, because riots would cause nothing but mass genocide. If trouble erupted, it would be open season on blacks and the BPP would be the first attacked.  

Around 6pm, some Party members and I met at a Panther's apartment off San Pablo Ave. We decided that we would ride in three vehicles transporting food and supplies for the barbecue picnic and at the same time we would observe and patrol the police activities in the Black community.

Around 7:30pm, after patrolling and picking up supplies for the rally, two policemen turned their cruiser south observing and following us onto 28th street and Union street where we had stopped for a minute for Eldridge Cleaver who had to urinate. Eldridge and L'il Bobby Hutton were riding in a 1961 Ford with several other Panthers. I was riding shotgun, in the center of the back seat, armed with a banana clip 30 caliber carbine. Panther Charles Bursey was to the left of me and Donnell Lankford was to the right. The officers pulled their cruiser to a stop in the middle of the street side by side with these vehicles. (The 1961 Ford with Florida license plates had been observed all week because it was known by the Oakland Police as a Panther vehicle.) Gunfire erupted at once, two wild shots were followed instantly by a deluge of lead that riddled the squad cars and shots were fired by police into the rear window of the 1954 Ford in which I was riding.  

More policemen flocked to the shooting scene. Charles Bursey was able to get out of the car and escape the scene. Donnell Lankford, who was to the right of me, attempted to open the door so we could take cover, but the door was jammed. The door finally came open, but as soon as we tried to exit the vehicle, there were about a dozen police with their guns and shotguns drawn and thrust into our faces. They were making racist, insulting remarks while we were lying face down, handcuffed behind our backs, helpless on the pavement. They made statements such as, "you niggers just lost Martin Luther King and if you make one move we will not hesitate to blow your heads off."  

We were then put into the police paddy wagon. Donnell, John L. Scott and I were the first to be arrested. The over- reactionary pigs sprayed mace into our eyes after we were already handcuffed and helpless. As the police wagon drove away from the scene, I could barely see out the back, but it appeared to me that there were black people running behind the wagon saying, "Free these brothers, you racist cops." I told my comrades in the police wagon that this was a deliberate ambush, attempting to commit genocide against the BPP.  

The booking officer asked me if I wanted to make a statement after being booked. I said no, I was taking the 5th amendment until I consulted with my attorney, Charles Garry. They put Lankford, Scott and me into different holding cells. I could hear racist statements like, "They should kill Eldridge Cleaver. He's like a wild animal running amok." Note: the ambush of other Party members was still going on at this time. Later that night, Harold Rodgers, Charles Garry's assistant attorney, visited me in my cell and told me that one Party member did not survive. That was the Party's first member and treasurer, Bobby James Hutton.
Long Live The Spirit of L"il Bobby Hutton.

Terry M.cotteon, former political prisoner and BPP member.





After the Second World War (1939-1945), things began to change in the then Gold Coast. The discrimination against educated Ghanaians in the civil service was on the increase and high positions were reserved for white men while Ghanaians became "hewers of wood and drawers of water". The European and Asian firms were also seriously exploiting the Africans. The Ex-servicemen (Ghanaian soldiers who fought in the World War), helped in another way to expose the weakness of the British.

On June 12th, 1949 Kwame Nkrumah formed a radical nationalist party - Ghana's Convention People’s Party (C.P.P) with its motto "self-government now". He was joined by Kojo Botsio, K.A Gbedemah and others.

On 9th January, 1950 the C.P.P organized a nation-wide boycott and strike for workers and the masses. The people refused to buy all British goods. Workers were warned not to cause any trouble. In the cause of the riots however, two policemen were shot dead. On January 21st 1950, Nkrumah and other leading C.P.P members including Kojo Botsio and K.A. Gbedemah were imprisoned at the James Fort Prison, Accra, on charges arising from pursuing what was termed as "Positive Action" against the Government. The imprisonment of Nkrumah made him a hero and martyr in the eyes of the people.

In 1951, the pace was set for general elections. Kwame Nkrumah was in prison when the elections were conducted. He overwhelmingly won the elections and was released by the then Governor, Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clark to head the new government. This however became the British Colony’s first African government. In March 1952, Kwame Nkrumah was designated Prime Minister. He was to appoint a cabinet, which was not to be responsible to the Governor but the Assembly.Kwame Nkrumah in June 1953 submitted proposals for a new constitution. It was upon those that the April 1954 constitution was introduced making the country virtually self-governing. This new constitution provided for an All-African cabinet from an enlarged legislature. A general election followed in June 1954 from which the C.P.P won 79 out of the 104 seats of the National Assembly.

In 1956, another election was held in response to a pledge by the British Secretary of State for the colonies that if the newly elected legislature, by a reasonable majority, passed a resolution calling for independence; a firm date for the changeover would be announced. C.P.P won 71 out of the 104 contested seats. The British Mandated Togoland also held a plebiscite to join the Gold Coast.

This action opened the way for Ghana’s Independence and on 6th March, 1957, the curtain was drawn on the old order. The country emerged as the first country in Africa, South of the Sahara to regain independence from colonial rule. A new chapter was opened in the history of Ghana. On the eve of Ghana’s independence, Kwame Nkrumah (then Prime Minister) proclaimed at the old Polo Grounds in Accra: "At long last, the battle has ended and Ghana, our beloved country is free.

For further reading, go to: